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The Ottoman Empire was founded by Osman I. As sultan Mehmed II conquered Constantinople (today named Istanbul) in 1453, the state grew into a mighty empire. The Empire reached its apex under Suleiman the Magnificent in the 16th century when it stretched from the Persian Gulf in the east to Hungary in the northwest; and from Egypt in the south to the Caucasus in the north. After its defeat at the Battle of Vienna in 1683, however, the empire began a slow decline, culminating in the defeat of the empire by the Allies in World War I. The empire was dismantled by the Allies after the war ended in 1918.
List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire:
Sultans of the Ottoman Empire, members of the Ottoman Dynasty, ruled over that vast transcontinental empire from 1299 to 1922. At its height, it spanned from Hungary in the north to Somalia in the south, and from Algeria in the west to Iran in the east. Administered at first from the city of Bursa in Anatolia, the empire's capital was moved to Edirne in 1366 and then to Constantinople (currently known as Istanbul) in 1453 following its capture from the Byzantine Empire.
The Ottoman Empire's early years have been the subject of varying narratives due to the difficulty of discerning fact from legend; nevertheless, most modern scholars agree that the empire came into existence around 1299 and that its first ruler was Osman I Khan (leader) of the Kayı tribe of the Oghuz Turks.
The Ottoman Dynasty he founded was to endure for six centuries through the reigns of 36 sultans. The Ottoman Empire disappeared as a result of the defeat of the Central Powers with whom it had allied itself during World War I.
The partitioning of the empire by the victorious Allies and the ensuing Turkish War of Independence led to the birth of the modern Republic of Turkey.